Recent Patents on Engineering, Vol 8, No 2 (2014)

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3D and 4D Face Recognition: A Comprehensive Review

Mr. Steven Fernandes

Abstract


Facial Recognition has interested many researchers due to its various purposes and applications. Recent developments in 3D imaging technology have made it possible to use a true 3D mesh of the face for recognition. Moreover, it is now also possible to use 4D data (3D meshes changing over time) from publicly-available databases. Since the use of 3D and 4D data promises to bypass many of the issues that plague 2D images and video, the challenge is to perform expression analysis 3D and 4D domains. The paper is divided in two parts. In the first part, we present various 3D Morphable Models for Face Recognition which contains Face Model Fitting and Dynamic Model Expansion. In the second part of this article, a systematic pipeline for 4D Face Recognition (dynamic 3D sequences) which consist of Mesh Matching, RANdomSAmple Consensus (RANSAC), consecutive Annotated Face Model (AFM) Fitting and Feature Description. We evaluated both 3D and 4D Facial Recognition pipelines on two publicly available facial expression databases UND, GAVAB, BU-3DFE, BU-4DFE. In this paper we have considered several patents "Face recognition apparatus, face recognition method, Gabor filter application apparatus, and computer program" "Gabor filtering and joint sparsity model-based face recognition method" "Gabor human face recognizing method based on simplified intelligent single-particle optimizing algorithm" "Face identification method based on multi scale weber local descriptor and kernel group sparse representation" “Face recognition with support vector machine: Global versus component-based approach”

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